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Tuesday, 31 December 2013

Saint Patrick, a Sabbath Keeper

Her parents, having taken advice given to them by God, heard of Patrick as a man who was visited by the everlasting God every seventh day; [...]
Muirchu maccu Machtheni and Saint Patrick, St. Patrick, his writings and life, ed. and tr. Newport John Davis White, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; New York, Macmillan, 1920, p. 99.

The angel was wont to come to him on every seventh day of the week; and, as one man talks with another, so Patrick enjoyed the angel's conversation.
Muirchu maccu Machtheni and Saint Patrick, St. Patrick, his writings and life, ed. and tr. Newport John Davis White, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge; New York, Macmillan, 1920, p. 109.

Westcott and Hort's 'new Textual Theory,' a Conspiracy?

[...] all this, my lord Bishop, I frankly avow, to me, looks very much indeed like what,- in the language of lawyers, is called "Conspiracy."
Burgon, John William, Revision Revised: Three Articles Reprinted from the Quarterly Review,  J. Murray, 1883, p. 398.

Hort on Mediation

I have been persuaded for many years that Mary-worship and 'Jesus'-worship have very much in common in their causes and their results. [...] Protestants [must] unlearn the crazy horror of the idea of priesthood.
Hort, Fenton John Anthony and Arthur Fenton Hort, Life and letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, London: Macmillan and Co., ltd.; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1896, v. 2, pp. 50-51.

Hort and the Supernatural

Westcott, Gorham, C. B. Scott, Benson, Bradshaw, Luard, etc., and I have started a society for the investigation of ghosts and all supernatural appearances and effects, being all disposed to believe that such things really exist, and ought to be discriminated from hoaxes and mere subjective delusions; we shall be happy to obtain any good accounts well authenticated with names. Westcott is drawing up a schedule of questions. Cope calls us the 'Cock and Bull Club'; our own temporary name is the 'Ghostly Guild.'
Hort, Fenton John Anthony and Arthur Fenton Hort, Life and letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, London: Macmillan and Co., ltd.; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1896, v. 1, p. 211.

Hort: "Vile/Villainous Textus Receptus"

I had no idea till the last few weeks of the importance of texts, having read so little Greek Testament, and dragged on [with the work of translating] with the villainous Textus Receptus. [...] Think of that vile Textus Receptus leaning entirely on late MSS. ; it is a blessing there are such early ones. . . .
Hort, Fenton John Anthony and Arthur Fenton Hort, Life and letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, London: Macmillan and Co., ltd.; New York: Macmillan & Co., 1896, v. 1, p. 211.

According to the Ashanti, the Sky Once was Close to the Earth...

[...] a woman [...] was pounding yams, and the sky [God?] got in the way so that her wooden pestle hit it continually, till it grew so angry that it withdrew out of her reach.
Cardinall, Allan Wolsey, The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast; their customs, religion and folklore, London: George Routledge & Sons; New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1920, p. 23.

According to the Kassena, the Sky Once was Close to the Earth...

The Kassena relate that in the beginning the sky [God?] was close to the ground. An old woman was about to cook, but the sky was in the way, so, in her temper, she cut off a piece and made it into soup. The sky, angered, went away to its present place.
Cardinall, Allan Wolsey, The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast; their customs, religion and folklore, London: George Routledge & Sons; New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1920, pp. 22-23.

The Beach Boys' Witchcraft Music?

We were all messed up on drugs. We were doing witchcraft, trying to make witchcraft music.
Kent, Nick, The Dark Stuff: Selected Writings on Rock Music, Boston: Da Capo Press, 2002, p. 43.

One Flock Under One Shepherd BUT NOT One Fold

He [Christ] promised us one flock under one shepherd, but not one fold. The famous passage, John 10:16, has been mistranslated by the Latin Vulgate, and the error has passed into King James's Version. Christ's flock is one, but there are many folds, and there will be "many mansions in heaven."
 Schaff, Philip, "The Reunion of Christendom."
(Evangelical Alliance for the United States of America, Christianity practically applied: The discussions of the International Christian Conference held in Chicago, October 8-14, 1893, in connection with the World's Congress, Auxiliary of the World's Columbian Exposition, and under the auspices and direction of the Evangelical Alliance for the United States. The general conference (1894), New York: The Baker & Taylor Co., 1894, pp. 305-340 (, p. 316).)

Lugbara Tower of Babel

  At the beginning of the world men and God were in a direct relation, and men could move up and down from the sky. Some say they were linked by a rope, others by a bamboo tower, and I have once heard it said it was by a tall tree. This bridge between heaven and earth was broken and men fell down, scattering into their present distinct groups each with its different language; before that all men spoke the same language, said either to have been Lugbara or Kakwa. Since that time all peoples have been separate, their constituent groups having their own ancestors and with them forming traditionally and ideally self-contained spheres of social relations, conceived and structured by agnatic kinship.
Middleton, John, Lugbara Religion: Ritual and Authority among an East African People, London, New York, Toronto: Published for the International African Institute by the Oxford University Press, 1960, p. 270.

The Celtic Church and Sabbath

The Celts used a Latin Bible unlike the Vulgate, and kept Saturday as a day of rest, with special religious services on Sunday.
Flick, Alexander Clarence, The Rise of the Mediaeval Church and its influence on the civilisation of western Europe from the first to the thirteenth century, New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1909, p. 237.

The Sabbath in Seventh Century Scotland

They worked on Sunday, but kept Saturday in a sabbatical manner.
Lang, Andrew, A History of Scotland, 4 vols., London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1900, vol. 1, p. 96.

The Sabbath Early Kept in Scotland and Ireland

It seems to have been customary in the Celtic churches of early times, in Ireland as well as Scotland, to keep Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath, as a day of rest from labor [...]. In that case they obeyed the fourth commandment literally upon the seventh day of the week [...].
Moffat, James Clement, The Church in Scotland: a history of its antecedents, its conflicts and its advocates, from the earliest recorded times to the first assembly of the Reformed Church, Philadelphia: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1882, p. 140.

Monday, 30 December 2013

The Dark Day of May 19th, 1780 (3)

  The time of this extraordinary darkness, was May 19, 1780. It came on between hours of ten and eleven, A. M. and continued until the middle of the next night; but with different appearances at different places. [...] The degree to which the darkness arose, was different in different places. In most parts of the country it was so great, that people were unable to read common print—determine the time of day by their clocks or watches—dine—or manage their domestic business, without the light of candles. In some places, the darkness was so great, that persons could not see to read common print in the open air, for several hours together: but I believe this was not generally the case. The extent of this darkness was very remarkable. Our intelligence, in this respect, is not so particular as I could wish: but from the accounts that have been received, it seems to have extended all over the New-England states. It was observed as far east as Falmouth [Portland, Maine].—To the westward, we hear of its reaching to the furthest parts of Connecticut, and Albany —To the southward, it was observed all along the sea-coasts:—and to the north, as far as our settlements extend. It is probable it extended much beyond these limits, in some directions: but the exact boundaries cannot be ascertained by any observations that I have been able to collect. With regard to its duration, it continued in this place at least fourteen hours: but it is probable this was not exactly the same in different parts of the country. The appearance and effects were such as tended to make the prospect extremely dull and gloomy. Candles were lighted up in the houses;—the birds having sung their evening songs, disappeared, and became silent;—the fowls retired to roost;—the cocks were crowing all around, as at break of day;—objects could not be distinguished but at a very little distance; and every thing bore the appearance and gloom of night.
Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 1, 1785, pp. 234-235.

The Meteor Shower of November 12-13, 1833

  [...] the most sublime phenomenon of shooting stars, of which the world has furnished any record, was witnessed throughout the United States on the morning of the 13th of November, 1833. The entire extent of this astonishing exhibition has not been precisely ascertained, but it covered no inconsiderable portion of the earth's surface. [...]
  [...] the first appearance was that of fireworks of the most imposing grandeur, covering the entire vault of heaven with myriads of fire-balls, resembling sky-rockets. Their coruscations were bright, gleaming and incessant, and they fell thick as the flakes in the early snows of December.
  To the splendors of this celestial exhibition, the most brilliant sky-rockets and fireworks of art bear less relation than the twinkling of the most tiny star to the broad glare of the sun. The whole heavens seemed in motion, and suggested to some the awful grandeur of the image employed in the apocalypse, upon the opening of the sixth seal, when "the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig-tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind."
Burritt, Elijah Hinsdale, The Geography of the Heavens, grt. enl., rev., and ill. by Hiram Mattison, New York: Mason Brothers; Cincinnati: Rickey, Mallory & Co., 1860, p. 157.

Saturday, 28 December 2013

The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 (2)

The great earthquake of 1755 extended over a tract of at least four millions of square miles. Its effects were even extended to the waters, in many places where the shocks were not perceptible. It pervaded the greater portions of the continents of Europe, Africa, and America; but its extreme violence was exercised on the southwestern part of the former.
Sears, Robert, The Wonders of the World, in Nature, Art, and Mind, New York: published by Robert Sears, 1843, p. 50.

In Africa this earthquake was felt almost as severely as it had been in Europe. A great part of the city of Algiers was destroyed. Many houses were thrown down at Fez and Mequinez, and multitudes were buried beneath their ruins. Similar eflfects were realized in Morocco. Its eflfects were likewise felt at Tangier, at Tetuan, at Funchal in the island of Madeira; [...] it is probable [...] that all Africa was shaken by this tremendous convulsion. At the north it extended to Norway and Sweden; Germany, Holland, France, Great Britain, and Ireland were all more or less agitated by the same great and terrible commotion of the elements.
Sears, Robert, The Wonders of the World, in Nature, Art, and Mind, New York: published by Robert Sears, 1843, p. 58.

The city of Lisbon [...] Previous to that calamity [...] contained about [...] 150,000 inhabitants [...]. [...] Mr. Barretti says, "that 90,000 persons are supposed to have been lost on that fatal day. [...]"
Sears, Robert, The Wonders of the World, in Nature, Art, and Mind, New York: published by Robert Sears, 1843, p. 381.

Friday, 27 December 2013

The Great Lisbon Earthquake of 1755 (1)

In no part of the volcanic region of Southern Europe has so tremendous an earthquake occurred in modern times as that which began on the 1st of November, 1755, at Lisbon. A sound of thunder was heard underground, and immediately afterwards a violent shock threw down the greater part of that city. In the course of about six minutes, sixty thousand persons perished. The sea first retired and laid the bar dry; it then rolled in, rising fifty feet above its ordinary level. The mountains of Arrabida, Estrella, Julio, Marvan, and Cintra, being some of the largest in Portugal, were impetuously shaken, as it were, from their very foundations; and some of them opened at their summits, which were split and rent in a wonderful manner, huge masses of them being thrown down into the subjacent valleys. Flames are related to have issued from these mountains, which are supposed to have been electric; they are also said to have smoked; but vast clouds of dust may have given rise to this appearance.
The great area over which this Lisbon earthquake extended is very remarkable. The movement was most violent in Spain, Portugal, and the north of Africa; but nearly the whole of Europe, and even the West Indies, felt the shock on the same day. A seaport called St. Ubes, about twenty miles south of Lisbon, was engulfed. At Algiers and Fez, in Africa, the agitation of the earth was equally violent; and at the distance of eight leagues from Morocco, a village with the inhabitants, to the number of about eight or ten thousand persons, together with all their cattle, were swallowed up. Soon after, the earth closed again over them.
The shock was felt at sea, on the deck of a ship to the west of Lisbon, and produced very much the same sensation as on dry land. Off St. Lucar, the captain of the ship Nancy felt his vessel so violently shaken, that he thought she had struck the ground, but, on heaving the lead, found a great depth of water. Captain Clark, from Denia, in latitude 36° 24' N., between nine and ten in the morning, had his ship shaken and strained as if she had struck upon a rock. Another ship, forty leagues west of St Vincent, experienced so violent a concussion, that the men were thrown a foot and a half perpendicularly up from the deck. In Antigua and Barbadoes, as also in Norway, Sweden, Germany, Holland, Corsica, Switzerland, and Italy, tremors and slight oscillations of the ground were felt.
The agitation of lakes, rivers and springs in Great Britain was remarkable. At Loch Lomond, in Scotland, for example, the water, without the least apparent cause, rose against its banks, and then subsided below its usual level. The greatest perpendicular height of this swell was two feet four inches. It is said that the movement of this earthquake was undulatory, and that it travelled at the rate of twenty miles a minute. A great wave swept over the coast of Spain, and is said to have been sixty feet high at Cadiz. At Tangier, in Africa, it rose and fell eighteen times on the coast; at Funchal, in Madeira, it rose full fifteen feet perpendicular above high-water mark, although the tide, which ebbs and flows there seven feet, was then at half-ebb. Besides entering the city and committing great havoc, it overflowed other seaports in the island. At Kinsale, in Ireland, a body of water rushed into the harbour, whirled round several vessels, and poured into the marketplace.
Spofford, Ainsworth Rand and Charles Gibbon, The Library of Choice Literature, Philadelphia: Gebbie & Co.,  1882, vol. 7, pp. 162-163.

Tuesday, 24 December 2013

Roman Opinion Concerning the Jews and the Sabbath: Petronius (c. 27-66 AD)

The Jew may worship his pig-god and clamour in the ears of high heaven, but unless he also cuts back his foreskin with the knife, he shall go forth from the holy city cast forth from the people, and transgress the sabbath by breaking the law of fasting.
Arbiter, Gaius Petronius, Poem 24.
(Arbiter, Gaius Petronius and Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Petronius; Seneca - Apocolocyntosis, tr. Michael Heseltine and William Henry Denham Rouse, London: William Heinemann; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1925, p. 357.)

Iudaeus licet et porcinum numen adoret et caeli summas advocet auriculas,
ni tamen et ferro succiderit inguinis oram et nisi nodatum solverit arte caput,
exemptus populo sacra1 migrabit ab urbe et non ieiuna sabbata lege premet.
Arbiter, Gaius Petronius, Poem 24 (97 P.L.M.).
(Arbiter, Gaius Petronius and Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Petronius; Seneca - Apocolocyntosis, tr. Michael Heseltine and William Henry Denham Rouse, London: William Heinemann; New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1925, p. 356.)

Roman Opinion Concerning the Jews and the Sabbath: Persius (34-62 AD)

[...] and turn pale at the circumcised sabbath.
Flaccus, Aulus Persius, Satire V, 184.
(Flaccus, Aulus Persius, The Satires of A. Persius Flaccus, tr. Conington, 1872, p. 113.)

And dread the sabbaths of the circumcised!
Flaccus, Aulus Persius, Satire V.
(Walsh, Robert, ed., Works of the British Poets, 1822, vol. 5 - Aristophanes, Terence, Persius, p. 481.)

[...] recutitaque sabbata palles.
Flaccus, Aulus Persius, Satire V, 184.
(Flaccus, Aulus Persius, The Satires of A. Persius Flaccus, tr. Conington, 1872, p. 112.)

Saturday, 21 December 2013

The Power of Music

And therefore, I [Socrates] said, Glaucon, musical training is a more potent instrument than any other, because rhythm and harmony find their way into the inward places of the soul, on which they mightily fasten, imparting grace, and making the soul of him who is rightly educated graceful, or of him who is ill-educated ungraceful [...]
Plato, The Republic of Plato, 3rd ed., tr. Benjamin Jowett, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1888, p. 88.

The Passions, Temperance, and Freedom

Men are qualified for civil liberty, in exact proportion to their disposition to put moral chains upon their own appetites [...] Society cannot exist unless a controlling power upon will and appetite to be placed somewhere [...] It is ordained in the eternal constitution of things, that men of intemperate minds cannot be free. Their passions forge their fetters.
Burke, Edmund, The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke, Boston: John West; O. C. Greenleaf, 1807, vol. 3, pp. 305-306.

Friday, 20 December 2013

The Classic of Filial Piety on Music

[...] for changing their [people's] manners and altering their customs there is nothing better than Music [...]
 Classic of Filial Piety (孝經, Xiao Jing), ch. 12.
(Legge, James, tr., The Sacred books of China: The texts of Confucianism, Oxford: The Clarendon press, 1879, part 1(, Sacred Books of the East, vol. 3), pp. 481-482.)

The Birth of Christ Celebrated on December 25! Why?

  Soon after the end of the last great persecution, about the year 330, the Church in Rome definitely assigned December 25 for the celebration of the birth of Christ. For a while, many Eastern Churches continued to keep other dates, but toward the end of the fourth century the Roman custom became universal.
  No official reason has been handed down in ecclesiastical documents for the choice of this date. [...]
  It was expressly stated in Rome that the actual date of the Saviour's birth was unknown and that different traditions prevailed in different parts of the world.
  There remains then this explanation, which is the most probable one, and held by most scholars in our time: the choice of December 25 was influenced by the fact that the Romans, from the time of Emperor Aurelian (275), had celebrated the feast of the sun god (Sol Invictus: the Unconquered Sun) on that day. December 25 was called the "Birthday of the Sun," and great pagan religious celebrations of the Mithras cult were held all through the empire.
Weiser, Francis X., Handbook of Christian Feasts and Customs, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1958, pp. 60-62.

Little Richard on Rock

My true belief about Rock ‘n’ Roll—and there have been a lot of phrases attributed to me over the years—is this: I believe this kind of music is demonic. I have seen the rock groups and the punk-rock people in this country. And some of their lyrics is demonic. They talk against God. A lot of the beats in music today are taken from voodoo, from the voodoo drums. If you study music in rhythms, like I have, you'll see that is true.
White, Charles, The Life and Times of Little Richard: The Quasar of Rock, updated ed., Boston: Da Capo Press, p. 197.

I had forgotten all about God—going from town to town, city to city, and from country to country, not knowing that I was directed and commanded by another power. The power of darkness. The power that you've heard so much about. The power that a lot of people don't believe exists. The power of the Devil. Satan.
White, Charles, The Life and Times of Little Richard: The Quasar of Rock, updated ed., Boston: Da Capo Press, pp. 205-206.

John Lennon as a Spirit Filled Temple

"I [John Lennon] felt like a hollow temple filled with many spirits, each one passing through me, each inhabiting me for a little time and then leaving to be replaced by another."
Goldman, Albert, The Lives of John Lennon, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1988, p. 373.

Plato on Music

[...] they involuntarily, through their ignorance, asserted falsely that music did not possess any correctness whatever; but that it might be judged of most correctly by the pleasure of the party gratified, whether he were a better person or a worse.
Plato, The Laws, bk. 3, ch. 15.
(Plato, The Works of Plato: A New and Literal Version, trans. George Burges, London: Henry G. Bohn, 1852, vol. 5, The Laws, p. 117.)

without intending it, they were guilty of so far slandering their art as to assert, in their folly, that there was no such thing as right or wrong in music: the one proper criterion was the pleasure of the hearer, be he gentle or simple.
Plato, The Laws, bk. 3.
(Plato, The Laws of Plato, ed. w. intro., notes, etc. by E. B. England, Manchester: The University Press; London, New York, Bombay, etc.: Longmans, Green & Co., 1921, vol. 1, bks. 1-6, pp. 114, 409.)

Jimmy Page Being a Vehicle for Some Greater Force

"I know what my musical direction is now," he [Page] said at the end of 1973, "and at those times when I've hit it, it's just like I'm a vehicle for some greater force."
Davis, Stephen, Hammer of the Gods: the Led Zeppelin Saga, New York: Harper Entertainment, 2008, p. 211.

Wednesday, 18 December 2013

The Source of the Wizard of Oz in Baum's Own Words

"It [the Wonderful Wizard of Oz] was pure inspiration," he [Baum] said, "It came to me right out of the blue. I think that sometimes the Great Author has a message to get across and He has to use the instrument at hand. I happened to be that medium, and I believe the magic key was given me to open the doors to sympathy and understanding, joy, peace and happiness."
Baum, Lyman Frank, The Annotated Wizard of Oz, ed. Michael Patrick Hearn, Centennial Edition, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, p. xcv.

Tuesday, 17 December 2013

Led Zeppelin's Robert Plant and Automatic Writing

As for the lyrics [for 'Stairway to Heaven' of Led Zeppelin's fourth album], written entirely by Plant, 'Jimmy and I just sat by the fire, it was a remarkable setting,' he recalled years later. 'I was holding a pencil and paper, and for some reason I was in a very bad mood. Then all of a sudden my hand was writing out the words, "There's a lady who's sure all that glitters is gold/And she's buying a stairway to heaven . . ." I just sat there and looked at the words and then I almost leapt out of my seat.' [...]
More words would come the following day as the band worked their way bit by bit through the song's epic journey. [...] Page recalled how, 'As we were doing all that, Robert was writing down the lyrics. They just came to him really quickly. He said it was like someone was guiding his hand.'
Wall, Mick, When Giants Walked the Earth: A Biography of Led-Zeppelin, London: Orion Books, 2008, pp. 242-243.

He [Robert Plant] often remarked that he could feel his pen being pushed by some higher authority.
Davis, Stephen, Hammer of the Gods: the Led Zeppelin Saga, New York: Berkley Boulevard Books, 1997, p. 243.
Davis, Stephen, Hammer of the Gods: the Led Zeppelin Saga, New York: Harper Entertainment, 2008, p. 243.

Sunday, 15 December 2013

Marduk, "calf of the sun"

[...] the logographic writing of his [Marduk's] name dAMAR.UD, Sumerian for "calf of the sun/sun-god"[...]
Nicole Brisch, 'Marduk (god)', Ancient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses, Oracc and the UK Higher Education Academy, 2013 []

Saturday, 14 December 2013

Calling on the gods... Slay a few animals... At the crossroads

When I was back there in seminary school
There was a person there
Who put forth the proposition
That you can petition the Lord with prayer
Petition the lord with prayer
Petition the lord with prayer
You cannot petition the lord with prayer!

Can you give me sanctuary
I must find a place to hide
A place for me to hide

Can you find me soft asylum
I can't make it anymore
The Man is at the door [what man?]


There's only four ways to get unraveled
One is to sleep and the other is travel, da da
One is a bandit up in the hills
One is to love your neighbor 'till [sodomy?]
His wife gets home


All our lives we sweat and save
Building for a shallow grave
Must be something else we say
Somehow to defend this place
Everything must be this way
Everything must be this way, yeah


Out of sight!
The lights are getting brighter
The radio is moaning
Calling to the dogs [gods?]
There are still a few animals
Left out in the yard


We need someone or something new
Something else to get us through, yeah, c'mon

Callin' on the dogs [gods?]
Callin' on the dogs [gods?]
Oh, it's gettin' harder
Callin' on the dogs [gods?]
Callin' in the dogs [gods?]
Callin' all the dogs [gods?]
Callin' on the gods

You gotta meet me
Too late, baby
Slay a few animals
At the crossroads
Too late
All in the yard
By the crossroads
You gotta meet me
At the edge of town
Outskirts of the city
You and I
We need someone new
Somethin' new
Somethin' else to get us through
Better bring your gun
Better bring your gun

  "The Soft Parade," The Doors, the soft parade.

  And he [Morrison] finally got there [the vocal theater and rhythmic tension of those first breakthrough records], at the very end of the album, in "The Soft Parade" [...] Morrison growls in ecstasy: "This is the best part of the trip!" And it is, a resolution of the fanfares and detours all over the rest of The Soft Parade, into that original pagan magic.
Fricke, David, the insert, the doors/the soft parade, Rhino Entertainment Company, 2007.

1844: The Beginnings of Spiritualism in Hydesville, New York

  The house at which the manifestations [rappings] first commenced, that have turned the eyes of the people of this generation to a more minute and careful investigation of spiritual phenomena [Spiritualism] than has characterized any preceding age, stands among a cluster of houses known by the name of Hydesville, in the town of Arcadia, county of Wayne and state of New York. It is a small framed building, one and a half stories high, and, at the time of the occurrences which have made it a matter of interest and curiosity to so many thousands, bore unmistakable evidences of age; and had been the humble shelter of many a family previous to that of Mr. Fox.
  It has generally been supposed, and so published, in most of the accounts of the commencement of these phenomena, that the sounds were first heard when the house was occupied by a Mr. Weekman. This seems to be an error, as there are, at least, two witnesses, whose testimony is recorded in a small pamphlet, published by E. E. Lewis, Esq., at Canandaigua, N. Y., in 1848, who testify to the sounds being heard by a family who occupied the same house in 1844. These witnesses are Mrs. Ann Pulver and Miss Lucretia Pulver.  The former testifies as follows:
  "I was acquainted with Mr. and Mrs. — (who occupied the house in 1844). I used to call on them frequently. My warping bars were in their chamber, and I used to go there to do my work. One morning when I went there Mrs. — told me that she felt very bad; that she had not slept much if any the night before. When I asked her what the matter was, she said she did n't know but what it was the fidgets; but she thought she heard somebody walking about from one room to another, and that she had Mr. — get up and fasten down all the windows. She said she felt more safe after that. I asked her what she thought it was. She said it might be rats. I heard her speak about hearing noises after that which she could not account for."
  Miss Lucretia Pulver, in her testimony, says: "I lived in this house all one winter, in the family of Mr. —. I worked for them part of the time, and part of the time I boarded and went to school. I lived there about three months. During the latter part of the time that I was there I heard this knocking frequently, in the bedroom, under the foot of the bed. I heard it a number of nights, as I slept in the bedroom all the time that I staid there. One night I thought I heard a man walking in the buttery. This buttery is near the bedroom, with a stairway between. Miss Aurelia Lozey staid with me on that night; she also heard the noise, and we were both much frightened, and got up, and fastened down the windows and fastened the door. It sounded as if a person walked through the buttery, down cellar, and part way across the cellar bottom, and there the noise would cease. There was no one else in the house at this time, except my little brother, who was asleep in the same room with us. This was about twelve o'clock, I should think. We did not go to bed until after eleven, and had not been asleep when we heard the noise. Mr. and Mrs. — had gone to Loch Berlin, to be gone until the next day."
Capron, Eliab Wilkinson, Modern Spiritualism: its facts and fanaticisms, its consistencies and contradictions, Boston: Bela Marsh; New York: Partridge and Brittan; Philadelphia: sold by Fowlers, Wells & Co., 1855, pp. 33-34.

[...] Lucretia Pulver, states that she lived with Mr. and Mrs. Bell during part of the time they occupied the house, namely, for three months during the winter of 1843-44, sometimes working for them, sometimes boarding with them, and going to school, she being then fifteen years old. She says Mr. and Mrs. Bell "appeared to be very good folks, only rather quick-tempered."
  She states that, during the latter part of her residence with them, one afternoon, about two o'clock, a peddler, on foot, apparently about thirty years of age, wearing a black frock-coat and light-colored pantaloons, and having with him a trunk and a basket, called at Mr. Bell's. Mrs. Bell informed her she had known him formerly. Shortly after he came in, Mr. and Mrs. Bell consulted together for nearly half an hour in the buttery. Then Mrs. Bell told her—very unexpectedly to her—that they did not require her any more; that she (Mrs. B.) was going that afternoon to Lock Berlin, and that she (Lucretia) had better return home, as they thought they could not afford to keep her longer. Accordingly, Mrs. Bell and Lucretia left the house, the peddler and Mr. Bell remaining. Before she went, however, Lucretia looked at a piece of delaine, and told the peddler she would take a dress off it if he would call the next day at her father's house, hard by, which he promised to do; but he never came. Three days afterward, Mrs. Bell returned, and, to Lucretia's surprise, sent for her again to stay with them.
  A few days after this, Lucretia began to hear knocking in the bedroom—afterward occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Fox—where she slept. The sounds seemed to be under the foot of the bed, and were repeated during a number of nights. One night, when Mr. and Mrs. Bell had gone to Lock Berlin, and she had remained in the house with her little brother and a daughter of Mr. Losey, named Aurelia, they heard, about twelve o'clock, what seemed the footsteps of a man walking in the buttery. They had not gone to bed till eleven, and. had not yet fallen asleep. It sounded as if some one crossed the buttery, then went down the cellar-stair, then walked part of the way across the cellar, and stopped. The girls were greatly frightened, got up and fastened doors and windows.
  About a week after this, Lucretia, having occasion to go down into the cellar, screamed out. Mrs. Bell asked what was the matter. Lucretia exclaimed, "What has Mr. Bell been doing in the cellar?" She had sunk in the soft soil and fallen. Mrs. Bell replied that it was only rat-holes. A few days afterward, at nightfall, Mr. Bell carried some earth into the cellar, and was at work there some time. Mrs. Bell said he was filling up the rat-holes.
Owen, Robert Dale, Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World, Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1860, pp. 294-296.

Friday, 13 December 2013

The Development of Darwin's 'On the Origin of Species'

After five years' work [1842] I allowed myself to speculate on the subject [the origin of species], and drew up some short notes; these I enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions, which then seemed to me probable; from that period to the present day I have steadily pursued the same object.
Darwin, Charles, On the Origin of Species, London: John Murray, 1859, p. 1.

In June 1842 I first allowed myself the satisfaction of writing a very brief abstract of my theory in pencil in 35 pages ; and this was enlarged during the summer of 1844 into one of 230 pages, which I had fairly copied out and still possess.
Darwin, Charles, The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, 2 vols., ed. Francis Darwin, New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887, vol. 1, p. 68.